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Here is a list of the winners of the Nobel Medicine Prize in the past 10 years ahead of Monday’s announcement of the 2021 award:

2020: Americans Harvey Alter and Charles Rice, together with Briton Michael Houghton, for the discovery of the Hepatitis C virus, leading to the development of sensitive blood tests and antiviral drugs.

2019: William Kaelin and Gregg Semenza of the US and Britain’s Peter Ratcliffe for establishing the basis of our understanding of how cells react and adapt to different oxygen levels.

2018: Immunologists James Allison of the US and Tasuku Honjo of Japan, for figuring out how to release the immune system’s brakes to allow it to attack cancer cells more efficiently.

2017: US geneticists Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael Young for their discoveries on the internal biological clock that governs the wake-sleep cycles of most living things.

2016: Yoshinori Ohsumi of Japan for his work on autophagy—a process whereby cells “eat themselves”—which when disrupted can cause Parkinson’s and diabetes.

2015: William Campbell, a US citizen born in Ireland, Satoshi Omura of Japan and Tu Youyou of China for unlocking treatments for malaria and roundworm.

2014: American-born Briton John O’Keefe, strattera not working anymore Edvard I. Moser and May-Britt Moser of Norway for discovering how the brain navigates with an “inner GPS”.

2013: Thomas C. Sudhof, a US citizen born in Germany, and James E. Rothman and Randy W. Schekman of the US for work on how the cell organises its transport system.

2012: Japan’s Shinya Yamanaka and Briton John B. Gurdon for discoveries showing how adult cells can be transformed back into stem cells.

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